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[명령어] curl 명령어

변군 변군이글루 2021. 6. 4. 11:59
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curl 명령어

 : 원격 서버 (FTP, HTTP 등)에서 파일을 가져 오는 유틸리티

curl 패키지 설치

$ yum install -y curl

$ curl --version
curl 7.29.0 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.29.0 NSS/3.53.1 zlib/1.2.7 libidn/1.28 libssh2/1.8.0
Protocols: dict file ftp ftps gopher http https imap imaps ldap ldaps pop3 pop3s rtsp scp sftp smtp smtps telnet tftp
Features: AsynchDNS GSS-Negotiate IDN IPv6 Largefile NTLM NTLM_WB SSL libz unix-sockets

curl help

자세한 설명은 curl --manual 명령어로 확인할 수 있다

$ curl --help
Usage: curl [options...] <url>
Options: (H) means HTTP/HTTPS only, (F) means FTP only
     --anyauth       Pick "any" authentication method (H)
 -a, --append        Append to target file when uploading (F/SFTP)
     --basic         Use HTTP Basic Authentication (H)
     --cacert FILE   CA certificate to verify peer against (SSL)
     --capath DIR    CA directory to verify peer against (SSL)
 -E, --cert CERT[:PASSWD] Client certificate file and password (SSL)
     --cert-type TYPE Certificate file type (DER/PEM/ENG) (SSL)
     --ciphers LIST  SSL ciphers to use (SSL)
     --compressed    Request compressed response (using deflate or gzip)
 -K, --config FILE   Specify which config file to read
     --connect-timeout SECONDS  Maximum time allowed for connection
 -C, --continue-at OFFSET  Resumed transfer offset
 -b, --cookie STRING/FILE  String or file to read cookies from (H)
 -c, --cookie-jar FILE  Write cookies to this file after operation (H)
     --create-dirs   Create necessary local directory hierarchy
     --crlf          Convert LF to CRLF in upload
     --crlfile FILE  Get a CRL list in PEM format from the given file
 -d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)
     --data-ascii DATA  HTTP POST ASCII data (H)
     --data-binary DATA  HTTP POST binary data (H)
     --data-urlencode DATA  HTTP POST data url encoded (H)
     --delegation STRING GSS-API delegation permission
     --digest        Use HTTP Digest Authentication (H)
     --disable-eprt  Inhibit using EPRT or LPRT (F)
     --disable-epsv  Inhibit using EPSV (F)
 -D, --dump-header FILE  Write the headers to this file
     --egd-file FILE  EGD socket path for random data (SSL)
     --engine ENGINGE  Crypto engine (SSL). "--engine list" for list
 -f, --fail          Fail silently (no output at all) on HTTP errors (H)
 -F, --form CONTENT  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)
     --form-string STRING  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)
     --ftp-account DATA  Account data string (F)
     --ftp-alternative-to-user COMMAND  String to replace "USER [name]" (F)
     --ftp-create-dirs  Create the remote dirs if not present (F)
     --ftp-method [MULTICWD/NOCWD/SINGLECWD] Control CWD usage (F)
     --ftp-pasv      Use PASV/EPSV instead of PORT (F)
 -P, --ftp-port ADR  Use PORT with given address instead of PASV (F)
     --ftp-skip-pasv-ip Skip the IP address for PASV (F)
     --ftp-pret      Send PRET before PASV (for drftpd) (F)
     --ftp-ssl-ccc   Send CCC after authenticating (F)
     --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode ACTIVE/PASSIVE  Set CCC mode (F)
     --ftp-ssl-control Require SSL/TLS for ftp login, clear for transfer (F)
 -G, --get           Send the -d data with a HTTP GET (H)
 -g, --globoff       Disable URL sequences and ranges using {} and []
 -H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)
 -I, --head          Show document info only
 -h, --help          This help text
     --hostpubmd5 MD5  Hex encoded MD5 string of the host public key. (SSH)
 -0, --http1.0       Use HTTP 1.0 (H)
     --ignore-content-length  Ignore the HTTP Content-Length header
 -i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)
 -k, --insecure      Allow connections to SSL sites without certs (H)
     --interface INTERFACE  Specify network interface/address to use
 -4, --ipv4          Resolve name to IPv4 address
 -6, --ipv6          Resolve name to IPv6 address
 -j, --junk-session-cookies Ignore session cookies read from file (H)
     --keepalive-time SECONDS  Interval between keepalive probes
     --key KEY       Private key file name (SSL/SSH)
     --key-type TYPE Private key file type (DER/PEM/ENG) (SSL)
     --krb LEVEL     Enable Kerberos with specified security level (F)
     --libcurl FILE  Dump libcurl equivalent code of this command line
     --limit-rate RATE  Limit transfer speed to this rate
 -l, --list-only     List only names of an FTP directory (F)
     --local-port RANGE  Force use of these local port numbers
 -L, --location      Follow redirects (H)
     --location-trusted like --location and send auth to other hosts (H)
 -M, --manual        Display the full manual
     --mail-from FROM  Mail from this address
     --mail-rcpt TO  Mail to this receiver(s)
     --mail-auth AUTH  Originator address of the original email
     --max-filesize BYTES  Maximum file size to download (H/F)
     --max-redirs NUM  Maximum number of redirects allowed (H)
 -m, --max-time SECONDS  Maximum time allowed for the transfer
     --metalink      Process given URLs as metalink XML file
     --negotiate     Use HTTP Negotiate Authentication (H)
 -n, --netrc         Must read .netrc for user name and password
     --netrc-optional Use either .netrc or URL; overrides -n
     --netrc-file FILE  Set up the netrc filename to use
 -N, --no-buffer     Disable buffering of the output stream
     --no-keepalive  Disable keepalive use on the connection
     --no-sessionid  Disable SSL session-ID reusing (SSL)
     --noproxy       List of hosts which do not use proxy
     --ntlm          Use HTTP NTLM authentication (H)
 -o, --output FILE   Write output to <file> instead of stdout
     --pass PASS     Pass phrase for the private key (SSL/SSH)
     --post301       Do not switch to GET after following a 301 redirect (H)
     --post302       Do not switch to GET after following a 302 redirect (H)
     --post303       Do not switch to GET after following a 303 redirect (H)
 -#, --progress-bar  Display transfer progress as a progress bar
     --proto PROTOCOLS  Enable/disable specified protocols
     --proto-redir PROTOCOLS  Enable/disable specified protocols on redirect
 -x, --proxy [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT] Use proxy on given port
     --proxy-anyauth Pick "any" proxy authentication method (H)
     --proxy-basic   Use Basic authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-digest  Use Digest authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-negotiate Use Negotiate authentication on the proxy (H)
     --proxy-ntlm    Use NTLM authentication on the proxy (H)
 -U, --proxy-user USER[:PASSWORD]  Proxy user and password
     --proxy1.0 HOST[:PORT]  Use HTTP/1.0 proxy on given port
 -p, --proxytunnel   Operate through a HTTP proxy tunnel (using CONNECT)
     --pubkey KEY    Public key file name (SSH)
 -Q, --quote CMD     Send command(s) to server before transfer (F/SFTP)
     --random-file FILE  File for reading random data from (SSL)
 -r, --range RANGE   Retrieve only the bytes within a range
     --raw           Do HTTP "raw", without any transfer decoding (H)
 -e, --referer       Referer URL (H)
 -J, --remote-header-name Use the header-provided filename (H)
 -O, --remote-name   Write output to a file named as the remote file
     --remote-name-all Use the remote file name for all URLs
 -R, --remote-time   Set the remote file's time on the local output
 -X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use
     --resolve HOST:PORT:ADDRESS  Force resolve of HOST:PORT to ADDRESS
     --retry NUM   Retry request NUM times if transient problems occur
     --retry-delay SECONDS When retrying, wait this many seconds between each
     --retry-max-time SECONDS  Retry only within this period
 -S, --show-error    Show error. With -s, make curl show errors when they occur
 -s, --silent        Silent mode. Don't output anything
     --socks4 HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS4 proxy on given host + port
     --socks4a HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS4a proxy on given host + port
     --socks5 HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS5 proxy on given host + port
     --socks5-basic  Enable username/password auth for SOCKS5 proxies
     --socks5-gssapi Enable GSS-API auth for SOCKS5 proxies
     --socks5-hostname HOST[:PORT] SOCKS5 proxy, pass host name to proxy
     --socks5-gssapi-service NAME  SOCKS5 proxy service name for gssapi
     --socks5-gssapi-nec  Compatibility with NEC SOCKS5 server
 -Y, --speed-limit RATE  Stop transfers below speed-limit for 'speed-time' secs
 -y, --speed-time SECONDS  Time for trig speed-limit abort. Defaults to 30
     --ssl           Try SSL/TLS (FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP)
     --ssl-reqd      Require SSL/TLS (FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP)
 -2, --sslv2         Use SSLv2 (SSL)
 -3, --sslv3         Use SSLv3 (SSL)
     --ssl-allow-beast Allow security flaw to improve interop (SSL)
     --stderr FILE   Where to redirect stderr. - means stdout
     --tcp-nodelay   Use the TCP_NODELAY option
 -t, --telnet-option OPT=VAL  Set telnet option
     --tftp-blksize VALUE  Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512)
 -z, --time-cond TIME  Transfer based on a time condition
 -1, --tlsv1         Use => TLSv1 (SSL)
     --tlsv1.0       Use TLSv1.0 (SSL)
     --tlsv1.1       Use TLSv1.1 (SSL)
     --tlsv1.2       Use TLSv1.2 (SSL)
     --tlsv1.3       Use TLSv1.3 (SSL)
     --tls-max VERSION  Use TLS up to VERSION (SSL)
     --trace FILE    Write a debug trace to the given file
     --trace-ascii FILE  Like --trace but without the hex output
     --trace-time    Add time stamps to trace/verbose output
     --tr-encoding   Request compressed transfer encoding (H)
 -T, --upload-file FILE  Transfer FILE to destination
     --url URL       URL to work with
 -B, --use-ascii     Use ASCII/text transfer
 -u, --user USER[:PASSWORD]  Server user and password
     --tlsuser USER  TLS username
     --tlspassword STRING TLS password
     --tlsauthtype STRING  TLS authentication type (default SRP)
     --unix-socket FILE    Connect through this UNIX domain socket
 -A, --user-agent STRING  User-Agent to send to server (H)
 -v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative
 -V, --version       Show version number and quit
 -w, --write-out FORMAT  What to output after completion
     --xattr        Store metadata in extended file attributes
 -q                 If used as the first parameter disables .curlrc

curl 명령어

헤더 확인

$ curl -I https://sangchul.kr
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 04 Jun 2021 02:42:52 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-UA-Compatible: IE=Edge
P3P: CP='ALL DSP COR MON LAW OUR LEG DEL'
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: https://sangchul.kr

리다이렉트

-L, --location 리다이렉트

$ curl -I http://sangchul.kr
HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Cache-Control: no-cache
Content-length: 0
Location: https://sangchul.kr/

###리디렉션
$ curl -IL http://sangchul.kr
HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Cache-Control: no-cache
Content-length: 0
Location: https://sangchul.kr/

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 04 Jun 2021 03:05:56 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-UA-Compatible: IE=Edge
P3P: CP='ALL DSP COR MON LAW OUR LEG DEL'
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: https://sangchul.kr

파일 다운로드

-O, --remote-name   원격 파일 이름으로 다운로드

-o, --output FILE   파일명 변경하여 다운로드

$ curl https://sangchul.kr/2530E143584F59F936 -o output.txt
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100  1824  100  1824    0     0  10702      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 10729

resolve 설정

--resolve HOST:PORT:ADDRESS  강제로 호스트 설정

$ curl -SsL --resolve 'www.sangchul.kr:443:111.111.1111.111' https://www.sangchul.kr

TLS(SSL)

$ curl https://sangchul.kr -svo /dev/null --tlsv1


$ curl https://sangchul.kr -svo /dev/null --tlsv1.2
* About to connect() to sangchul.kr port 443 (#0)
*   Trying 27.0.236.139...
* Connected to sangchul.kr (27.0.236.139) port 443 (#0)
* Initializing NSS with certpath: sql:/etc/pki/nssdb
*   CAfile: /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
  CApath: none
* SSL connection using TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
* Server certificate:
* 	subject: CN=sangchul.kr
* 	start date:  4월 24 18:33:39 2021 GMT
* 	expire date:  7월 23 18:33:39 2021 GMT
* 	common name: sangchul.kr
* 	issuer: CN=R3,O=Let's Encrypt,C=US
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: sangchul.kr
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Date: Fri, 04 Jun 2021 02:52:32 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Vary: Accept-Encoding
< X-UA-Compatible: IE=Edge
< P3P: CP='ALL DSP COR MON LAW OUR LEG DEL'
< Access-Control-Allow-Origin: https://sangchul.kr
< Vary: Accept-Encoding
<
{ [data not shown]
* Connection #0 to host sangchul.kr left intact

slack 발송

$ curl -i -X POST -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{"text": "Hello, this is some text\nThis is more text. :tada:"}' https://hooks.slack.com/services/T01/B01
HTTP/2 200
date: Fri, 04 Jun 2021 02:55:00 GMT
server: Apache
strict-transport-security: max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
x-slack-backend: r
access-control-allow-origin: *
x-frame-options: SAMEORIGIN
referrer-policy: no-referrer
vary: Accept-Encoding
content-type: text/html
x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 55
x-backend: main_normal main_canary_with_overflow main_control_with_overflow
x-server: slack-www-hhvm-main-iad-wyac
x-via: envoy-www-iad-kq54, haproxy-edge-nrt-zzcm
x-slack-shared-secret-outcome: shared-secret
via: envoy-www-iad-kq54

ok

Chrome에서 curl 명령어 확인하기

F12(DevTools) > Network > 개체(index.html) > Copy > Copy as cURL > 붙어넣기

curl 'https://sangchul.kr/' \
  -H 'Connection: keep-alive' \
  -H 'sec-ch-ua: " Not;A Brand";v="99", "Google Chrome";v="91", "Chromium";v="91"' \
  -H 'sec-ch-ua-mobile: ?0' \
  -H 'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1' \
  -H 'User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_7) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/91.0.4472.77 Safari/537.36' \
  -H 'Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9' \
  -H 'Sec-Fetch-Site: none' \
  -H 'Sec-Fetch-Mode: navigate' \
  -H 'Sec-Fetch-User: ?1' \
  -H 'Sec-Fetch-Dest: document' \
  -H 'Accept-Language: ko-KR,ko;q=0.9,en-US;q=0.8,en;q=0.7' \
  -H 'Cookie: __T_=1; adfit_sdk_id=cfeaf19e-0c39-402c-8f5e-26a49a04fe61; __gads=ID=071f7a38d1d17aef-228fec2431c90003:T=1622765095:RT=1622765095:S=ALNI_MZmFnhhYOPX5yFsCzCm-Pbb-b0pYA; REACTION_GUEST=6ad13744c1184c1a7655c43b53fbabcca3ff91d7' \
  --compressed
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